Probiotik multistrain dalam riset

Beberapa riset membuktikan probiotik multistrain memiliki aktivitas sebagai berikut:


Simple neutralization test report: Do probiotics contribute to COVID-19 therapy?

Anna Surgean Veterini, Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa, Damayanti Tinduh, Satuman Satuman • 2022

Background: There is an urgent need to identify effective therapy to treat coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19). Supplement consumption is becoming popular in this pandemic era. An example of this is probiotic consumption to improve the host’s immune system.

Objective: This study aimed to prove whether antibodies from people taking probiotics could inflence lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) values, and cell viability in vitro in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) inoculated with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as COVID-19 cells models.

Methods: This was an experimental study with control and intervention groups, totally in 12 groups divided based on antibody levels, probiotic intervention, probiotic non-intervention group, SARS-CoV-2 infection group, and non-SARS-CoV-2 infection group. In vitro assays were carried out on PBMC cell cultures inoculated with S1 SARSCoV-2 recombinant as a COVID-19 cell model. The COVID-19 cell model was given antibodies divided into three antibody level groups: sRBD levels of <3, 325.76 and 646.18. The cytotoxicity assessment examined increased levels of LDH, cytopathic activity by measuring ATP levels, and cell viability by XTT (2,3-Bis-(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-Sulfophenyl)-2H-Tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide) assay. Data were analyzed with SPSS 21 for Windows.

Results: This study showed a signifiant difference in the LDH value (p < 0.001) between each group. The difference in ATP values between groups was signifiant (p < 0.001). Meanwhile, the cell viability examination found that there was a tendency of decreased XTT (cell viability in %) when there was an increase of LDH and ATP.

Conclusion: The change of LDH values occurred most in the antibody group that did not consume probiotics. The highest cytopathic activity based on the ATP values occurred in the infected cell culture group with antibody levels of 325.76 and consuming probiotics. In addition, LDH and ATP activities provided evidence of a signifiant inflence on cell viability.


Veterini, A. S. et al. (2022). Simple neutralization test report: Do probiotics contribute to COVID-19 therapy? Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, 32.

Probiotics as an Adjunct Therapy for SARS COV-2 Infected Health-Care Workers

AS Veterini, EM Kurniawati, Hamzah, SM Soedarmo, CRS Prakoeswa, D Tinduh • 2021

Objectives: We performed this case-control observational study to evaluate the comparison of the length of duration of SARS COV-2 infection and the cycle threshold (Ct) value of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) nasopharynx swab between the probiotics intake (case) group and the non-probiotics intake (control) group.

Materials and Methods: Our study was a case-control study involving 15 cases and 15 controls matched for RT-PCR positive results. The participants were healthcare personnel consisting of registrars, consultants, and nurses. Each participant was interviewed by Google Forms using a structured questionnaire to collect information concerning sociodemographic characteristics, diet, pulmonological therapy, and adjunct therapy.

Results: The total participants consisted of 15 males and 15 females. For the case group, 4 participants had febrile illness, 1 participant had anosmia, 1 participant experienced febrile illness, nausea, and vomited before they consumed probiotics, and 9 participants did not have any clinical complaints. As for the control group, 1 participant had fever and cough while the other 14 participants did not have any clinical complaints—1 participant had co-morbidities in the control group. The data of age, duration of infection, and cycle threshold (Ct) value were in the normal distribution. Analysis results using SPSS 21.00 show no significant differences in the course of disease between the case group and the control group. We found that 2 participants in the control group had re-infection, while there was no re-infection in the case group.

Conclusion: The present study’s findings may imply future treatments for viral infections through the immunomodulation mechanism of probiotics through the consumption of probiotics.


Veterini, A. S. et al. (2021). Probiotics Intake as Adjunct Therapy for Infected Health-Care with SARS COV-2. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(2), 4021-4025.

The Immunomodulation Effects of Probiotics on Health Care Workers of Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya

G Soegiarto, SM Sudarmo, L Wulandari, CRS Prakoeswa, A Endaryanto, S Farida, D Tinduh • 2020

Background: The surge in COVID-19 cases has overwhelmed healthcare workers while also increasing their risk of getting exposed to COVID-19. Healthcare workers need to maintain their immunity in order to ensure their health and safety to carry out their duties. Probiotics are long-known to possess immunomodulatory properties which can be used to protect against respiratory viruses. However, there has not been a study that has observed how the application of probiotics can provide protection against coronaviruses.

Aim: This study aims to evaluate and prove the immunomodulatory effects of the probiotic concentrate which is administered to the healthcare workers of Dr. Soetomo hospital’s emergency unit as an effort to optimize body immunity against respiratory viruses, especially in cases where these healthcare workers tend to COVID-19 infected patients.

Methodology: This study is a pre- and post-experiment clinical examination that evaluates 100 healthcare workers who handled COVID-19 patients in Surabaya’s Dr. Soetomo hospital’s emergency unit. The subjects are supplemented with the probiotic concentrate syrup PRO EM•1 which contains the microorganisms Lactobacillus casei EMRO 002, Lactobacillus casei EMRO 213, Lactobacillus plantarum EMRO 009, Lactobacillus fermentum EMRO 211, Lactobacillus rhamnosus EMRO 014, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris EMRO 201 alongside other substances which are water, honey, molasses, aloe vera juice, and citric acid. The trial lasted for 28 days with the probiotics consumed twice daily at 15 cc per dose (2×15 cc/ day). There is no control in this study.


– Analysis based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test shows that 28 days of probiotic supplementation resulted in lower concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 compared to initial values. However, only the lowered concentrations of TNF-α and IFN-γ are considered statistically significant (p < 0,05).

– Over the course of 28 days, probiotic supplementation prevented the occurrence of upper respiratory infections (URI) in test subjects. This is supported by an insignificant change in the common cold indicator score (p < 0,05) before and after supplementation.

Conclusion: The probiotics displayed their immunomodulatory effects on the healthcare worker subjects who received probiotics supplementation for 28 days. As a result, URIs in those healthcare workers were prevented.

Recommendation: This study confirms the positive effects of probiotics in protecting against extraintestinal complications such as URIs. This supports the recommendation of probiotic supplementation for preventing URIs in healthcare workers.


Soegiarto, G. et al. (2020). Probiotic Immunomodulation Effects on Healthcare Workers of Dr. Soetomo [Research Results Report, Airlangga University Faculty of Medicine].


Anti-inflammatory activity of Lactobacillus spp. and Rhodopseudomonas palustris probiotics

Tjie Kok • 2023

Background:Probiotics have been used for many years to promote human health by mitigating inflammation. However,it s mechanics have not been fully elucidated. During inflammation, excessive and/or prolonged production of proinflammatory cytokines is related with various inflammatory diseases and cancer. Several probiotics have been reported as playing a role in suppressing the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as the human body attempts to recover. The
aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of probiotics consisting of Lactobacillus spp. and Rhodopseudomonas palustris on macrophage RAW 264.7 cells.
Methods:The probiotics mixture was centrifuged to separate supernatant, i.e., the probiotics extract, from the cells. The extract was then evaluated for its effects on cell viability and anti-inflammatory activity of LPS inflammation-induced RAW264.7 cells.
Results: The results showed that the extract of the probiotics was able to decrease the levels of IFN -γ, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, TGF-β1 pro-inflammatory cytokines/mRNAs, and increase the level of IL-10 anti-inflammatory mRNA.
Conclusion: The probiotics extract was identified to have anti-inflammatory activity, as it decreased the level of proinflammatory cytokines and increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines/mRNAs.


Kok T. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Lactobacillus spp. and Rhodopseudomonas palustris Probiotics. Bioactive Compounds in Health and Disease 2023; 6(3): 63-72. DOI:

Potential of multi-strain probiotics extract as an antiinflammatory agent through inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor activity

Denny Nyotohadi, Tjie Kok • 2023

Background: Probiotics are reported to have a role for improving health conditions and reduce the risk of diseases associated with inflammation. However, how they affect inflammation has not been well studied. The inflammation occurs during the progression of chronic diseases could damage the normal function of cells, tissues, and organs. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is recognized as a cytokine playing a key role in the inflammation process. Inhibition of its activity has been used by researchers as an approach for alleviating the inflammation. This study aims to evaluate the potential inhibitory effect of the extract of multi-strain probiotics consisting of Lactobacillus casei EMRO 002, L. casei EMRO 213, L. plantarum EMRO 009, L. fermentum EMRO 211, L. rhamnosus EMRO 014, L. bulgaricus EMRO 212, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris EMRO 201 on MIF tautomerase activity, the reversibility, and the mechanism of inhibition. Hence, the scope of this study is the evaluation of the functional characteristics of multi-strain probiotics extract on MIF activity.

Methods: The multi-strain probiotics were centrifuged and the supernatant was separated from the pellet. The supernatant, i.e. the extract, was mixed with MIF and analyzed for its inhibition effect on MIF tautomerase activity. The reversibility of inhibition was evaluated by preincubation and dilution assays, and the mechanism of inhibition was determined by kinetic evaluation.

Results: The multi-strain probiotics extract inhibited MIF tautomerase activity with an IC50 of 7.80 ± 1.96 mg/L. The preincubation and dilution assays showed that the inhibition is reversible, and the kinetic evaluation predicted that the extract components might bind to the enzyme active site and other site(s) of MIF.

Conclusion: The findings show that the extract was able to inhibit MIF tautomerase activity reversibly and its components might bind to the enzyme active site and other site(s) of MIF suggest that the multi-strain probiotics extract has potential to be used as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of chronic diseases associated with inflammation.


Nyotohadi, D., & Go, T. K. (2023). Potential of multi-strain probiotics extract as an anti-inflammatory agent through inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor activity. Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 13(1), 1.

Anti-Inflammatory and Immunostimulatory Effects of Extract from Culture of Effective Microorganisms (ECEM)

M Shintani, F Matsunaga, S Shimabukuro, S Nakamura • 2015

Background: The extract from culture of effective microorganisms (ECEM) is a secondary metabolite produced in symbiotic culture of a mixture of yeasts and lactic bacteria followed by photosynthetic bacteria. Metabolomics studies have demonstrated that ECEM contains several active ingredients associated with anti-inflammation through interactions with nuclear factor-κB.

Results: Functional genomics using DNA microarrays revealed that ECEM had distinctive anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory actions in RAW264.7 cells. ECEM inhibited the LPS-upregulated expression of one group of pro-inflammatory genes (iNos, Il6 and Cox2) but not another group genes (Tnf, Ccl7 and Dusp2); it also upregulated the expression of Cd1d1, which participates in antigen presentation on lipids, resulting in activation of natural killer T (NKT) cells related to infection defense and cancer.

Discussion: Bacterial glycosylated lipids and other related complex lipids in ECEM are thought to trigger this upregulation of Cd1d1 expression. These results suggest that ECEM functions in the immune response in both inflammation and antigen presentation and that it contains components important for these functions.

Conclusion: These novel effects of ECEM could be invaluable for developing functional drinks or health beverages.


Shintani, M. Mitsunaga, F., Shimabukuro, S., Nakamura, S. (2015). Anti-Inflammatory and Immunostimulatory Effects of Extract from Culture of Effective Microorganisms (ECEM) Revealed by Functional Genomics and Metabolome Analyses. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 1115-1125.

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